Throughout electronics manufacturing, SPC has been implemented with overall success. Quality generally has improved while the level of accountability has risen as data (some of which having been collected by automated optical inspection [AOI] systems) are on hand to monitor defects and to indicate less than optimum system performance. However, an inherent flaw in the general use of SPC exists: the data are not real time. Typically, the information is analyzed, line problems are discovered and changes made – a process that is hours and sometimes days after the fact. During the time between identifying the fault and correcting it, thousands of imperfect boards may have been produced at high cost and rising scrap levels.